Relevant Research

Wednesday, 09/21/2016

Dosing errors were almost five times more likely when parents used cups to measure liquid medications than when they used oral syringes.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends metric-based dosing of oral liquid medications to reduce dosing errors by parents (Physician's First Watch Mar 30 2015). To examine the effect of medication-label and dosing-tool characteristics on dosing errors, researchers asked parents at three pediatric clinics to measure three doses of liquid medication (2.5, 5, and 7.5 mL) using three tools (30-mL dosing cup, syringe marked in 0.2-mL increments, and syringe marked in 0.5-mL increments), in random order. Parents were randomized into five groups that were given different pairings of units on the medication labels (dose in mL only, teaspoon only, or mL and teaspoon) and tools (markings in mL only or mL and teaspoon). Dosing error was defined as >20% deviation from labeled dose. Read more.

Wednesday, 09/21/2016

Treatment decisions seem independent of life expectancy, functional status, and comorbidities.

Treatment for patients with cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) — both so common in older patients — can vary in intensity, complications, cosmetic results, recurrence rates, and cost. Mohs surgery is associated with certain advantages, especially in lesions with high risk for recurrence, but it is more time consuming and costly than simple excision or electrodessication and curettage. Learn more.

Monday, 08/29/2016

The FDA is cautioning that higher-than-recommended doses of the antidiarrheal drug loperamide (Imodium) are associated with potentially fatal cardiac problems. The drug is increasingly being misused for its opioid effects by patients either seeking euphoria or self-treating for opioid withdrawal. Learn more.

Monday, 08/29/2016

Researchers used CDC survey data on roughly 184,000 ambulatory care visits in 2010–2011 to estimate national antibiotic prescribing rates. Nearly 13% of the visits resulted in antibiotic prescriptions. Overall, an estimated 506 antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 population were written each year, but just 353 per 1000 were deemed to be appropriate (based on national guidelines and other parameters). Respiratory infections in particular (e.g., sinusitis, pharyngitis) accounted for 221 antibiotic prescriptions per 1000, but just 111 per 1000 were considered appropriate. Learn more.

Monday, 08/29/2016

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force says there isn't enough evidence to weigh the benefits and harms of screening for celiac disease in asymptomatic people. The draft recommendation is the group's first statement on celiac disease. Read more.

Monday, 08/29/2016

A large, high-quality trial finds that 92% of wound infections are cured with either antibiotic. Some observational studies have raised concerns about the potential inferiority of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) to clindamycin for treatment of wound infections. To compare the two medications, investigators conducted a multi center  randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 7-day courses of clindamycin (300 mg 4 times daily) versus TMP-SMX (320/1600 mg twice daily) in 500 emergency department patients older than 12 years with uncomplicated wound infections. Read more.

Monday, 08/29/2016

About 20,000 people died from opioid overdoses in 2014; 3% to 4% of the U.S. population receive prescriptions for long-term opioid therapy. The CDC has released what is considered to be the first federal clinical guideline for use of opioids in adults with chronic pain (duration, >3 months) not related to cancer or end-of-life care. The guideline is based on an update of a 2014 systematic review; at that time, no studies had evaluated benefits of opioid use for ≥1 year, but substantial risks of addiction, overdose, and death from long-term use had been documented. Read more.

Thursday, 08/25/2016

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common device-associated infection in hospitals. Both technical factors — appropriate catheter use, aseptic insertion, and proper maintenance — and socioadaptive factors, such as cultural and behavioral changes in hospital units, are important in preventing catheter-associated UTI. Read more.

Thursday, 08/25/2016

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force strongly recommends that clinicians routinely screen patients for colorectal cancer at ages 50 through 75 (A recommendation). The recommendation statement, in part a reaffirmation of the group's 2008 advice, is published in JAMA.

Thursday, 08/25/2016

In this new comprehensive guideline, researchers developed graded recommendations on diagnosis, management, and prevention of acute diarrheal infections based on a systematic review of evidence. Learn more.